OHT Goes to Renvyle House Hotel 130 Year Celebrations

OHT Goes to Renvyle House Hotel 130 Year Celebrations

It is always a pleasure to be invited to showcase your products and services to people who will be genuinely interested in your showing. Fortunately the guys at Renvyle House were kind enough to do is last weekend, on Saturday the 9th March. Let us tell you, the pleasure was all ours, what a place and what an experience

The day started around 8 o’clock in the morning when the packing begun with all the promotional material, flyers, backdrop and samples finding their way into the car. The bags were packed, the car was full of fuel and we were off. The hour and a half journey from Shrule, Co. Mayo, Ireland was going to be a long one, full of hills and windy roads but when you get to pass through beautiful areas such as Cong, Clonbur, Leenaan and Kylemore Abbey, who could complain.

Our view of Kylemore Abbey.

Our view of Kylemore Abbey.

The sun was shining as we drove, the music was blaring and the views were spectacular. It was only 11.30 and the day was off to a great start. When we arrived at Renvyle (our first time here) we were mesmerised by the beauty of the place, located right on the shore, with the beach literally 20 metres away, we did not need any more positives. Alas, I had to do some work.

Our Stand at The Indoor Market

Our Stand at The Indoor Market

In the hotel I met Zoe who showed me where I would be setting up for the Indoor Market and went through the details of the event with me. I got my stand set up, had a fantastic interview on the shore with Valerie Cox from RTE Radio 1 and went to relax in my room (which was complimentary by the way) for 15 minutes before the show got on the road. The Indoor Market was great, I was privileged enough to meet many fantastic people from a wide variety of places. Lucinda O’Sullivan and Rosita Boland would be two more familiar names but some great people at the market included The Connemara Smokehouse and the Nuns from Kylemore Abbey who had loads on offer. After the market I quickly packed away and went to my room to relax and watch the second half of the Ireland v France rugby match.

Then it was time to get ready for my Prosecco Reception before I got to enjoy a Gourmet Dinner of Seven Courses accompanied by specifically chosen wine for each course. You will find a few images below of some of the courses from the meal. I unfortunately got so absorbed in enjoying the marvellous food on offer, taking pictures kept slipping my mind.

Two Glasses of Prosecco

Two Glasses of Prosecco

The Dinner Menu

The Dinner Menu

Lobster and Mango Salad

Lobster and Mango Salad

Soup

Soup

Sorbet to clear the Palette

Sorbet to clear the Palette

Lamb main course

Lamb main course

Gorgeous refreshing dessert

Gorgeous refreshing dessert

The Gourmet Evening began at 7 o’clock and around 11.30 pm I finally put down the last bite of a gorgeous meal. A meal which was not only great for the food by Chef Tim O’ Sullivan and his team, but also for the service of the front of house staff and especially for the wonderful people I was able to sit down and enjoy my meal with, and people who I hope I will meet again in the future.

I would just like to finish by showing you the view from my room in the hotel which was spectacular and by thanking all of those in Renvyle for making my stay so relaxing and enjoyable. Finally I would also like to thank them for extending the invite of staying and enjoying their hospitality to my better have. I have gathered some great brownie points with her for this one.

The view from the bedroom

The view from the bedroom

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Seaweed – an untapped source of protein and bioactive compounds for aquaculture

Seaweed – an untapped source of protein and bioactive compounds for aquaculture

Seaweed is fast gaining a reputation as the ideal sustainable food source. Certainly, the nutritional properties of seaweeds are both unique and interesting, with some seaweeds having protein levels as high as 47%. Seaweed, therefore, represents an untapped source of protein and has great future potential.

As the global population continues to rise, the need for sustainable, alternative sources of protein also increases. In fact, it is estimated that the worldwide requirement for food will increase up to 50% by 2030, thus highlighting the absolute need for sustainable development. Recently, Ocean Harvest Technology has worked in collaboration with a number of research institutes to evaluate the use of different seaweeds as a sustainable protein source for aquaculture.

Why Seaweed Protein?

Protein is the most expensive constituent of fish feed whereby global expenditure exceeds €1bn per annum. Fishmeal is a high-protein animal feed used extensively in aquaculture but uses wild fish stocks to feed farmed fish and is an unsustainable feed resource. The ability of fishmeal supply to meet future demand is a massive global concern – especially given that aquaculture production is growing at a rate of nearly 9% per annum.

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Ocean Harvest Technology Produce

As wild fish stocks decline, the aquaculture industry faces a massive challenge to identify cost-effective and environmentally-friendly alternatives to fishmeal on which it is so heavily reliant. Seaweed protein has the potential to provide a solution to this problem as it is relatively underexploited, contains high amounts of protein and can be cultured in a sustainable, environmentally-friendly manner.

Essential Nutrients

Proteins are an important source of energy, present in all cells and are an essential component of most biochemical processes. Proteins comprise one or more chains of various amino acids, organised in a specific manner that give the protein a specific structure. When ingested, proteins are broken down into amino acids or short chains of amino acids called peptides. These amino acids play key roles in important metabolic pathways associated with maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity.

Amino acids can be classified as either essential or non-essential. Essential amino acids cannot be produced by the animal and must be sourced solely from the diet. Most seaweed species contain all of the essential amino acids and are also rich in some nonessential amino acids such as aspartic and glutamic acid.

In general, the protein content of seaweed ranges from 3-47% and considerable differences exist in the protein content of brown, green and red seaweeds. In contrast to brown seaweeds, red seaweeds contain higher levels of protein which can be up to 47% (Porphyra sp.). Brown seaweeds can have protein levels up to around 20% (Alaria esculenta) whereas the levels found in green seaweeds are as high as 29% (Ulva lactuca). Differences in season, species and environment can have a significant impact on the composition of amino acids and protein in seaweeds.

Bioactive Proteins

Seaweed is a natural source of biologically active proteins, amino acids and peptides. Two groups of bioactive proteins – lectins and phycobiliproteins – are present in some seaweed. Lectins are a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins that display anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory biological activity; lectins have been successfully isolated from a number of seaweeds including Eucheuma sp. and Codium fragile.

Harvesting Seaweed to extract protein

Harvesting Seaweed to extract protein

Another group of proteins – phycobiliproteins – exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering and antiviral activities to name but a few and have been isolated from the red seaweed, Palmaria palmata. A number of bioactive amino acids are also present in seaweed. One such example is taurine – a bioactive amino acid required for some biological functions. Other bioactive amino acids present in seaweeds include laminine, kainoids, and mycosporinelike amino acids. These amino acids have a wide range of biological properties including antioxidant, hypotensive, insecticidal, anthelmintic, and neuroexcitatory activity. In addition to bioactive amino acids, some bioactive peptides have been isolated from seaweed. These include carnosine and glutathione both of which are antioxidant peptides that protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Another bioactive peptide produced by seaweed is Kahalalide F which is a cyclic depsipeptide with anti-cancer activity and is also active in the treatment of AIDS.

Seaweed Protein in Aquafeed

The functional biological properties of seaweed protein make it an excellent candidate for a natural, sustainable alternative to fishmeal in aquaculture. The capacity for large-scale production of seaweeds in Ireland, together with the high-purity seaweed protein extraction developed by Ocean Harvest Technology further enhances the future potential. The availability of such sustainable protein sources is a prerequisite for our ability to continually produce high-quality and safe products.

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Aquaculture Breakthrough in Shrimp Farming

Aquaculture Breakthrough in Shrimp Farming

The black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, is a marine crustacean widely reared for food in Asia and is often the one that ends up on your restaurant plate.

Image of a Black Tiger Shrimp on a persons hand

Black Tiger Prawn

At approximately 36 centimetres in length and weighing up to 650 grams this is the world’s largest species of prawn. P. monodon is also the most widely cultured prawn species in the world, although it is gradually losing ground to the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Over 900,000 tonnes are consumed annually, worth about $US 5 billion, two thirds of which is farmed. Frozen head-on, head-off, and peeled shrimp used to be the major export products to the main markets in the USA, EU and Japan. In financial value, Penaeus monodon is the most important traded aquaculture commodity in Asia.

Disease Issues

Being the case with every type of monoculture, major disease problems are always a threat, either from viral Whitespote Disease (WSD) and Yellowhead Disease (YHV) or bacterial Vibrio campbellii .

No chemicals or drugs are yet available to treat such viral infections. Nevertheless, through good management of pond, water and feed, together with close monitoring of the health status of stock inputs, the impact of disease can be greatly reduced.

Outbreaks of the most serious virus disease nearly always occur following dramatic changes in parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and water hardness. In some cases, antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used to treat these viruses but their usage comes with a high price and with little success.

Solution

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Ocean Harvest Technology Produce

Oceanfeed™-shrimp is the first marine natural and sustainable functional feed ingredient derived from macroalgae. Unique blending and processing guarantees that all bioactive ingredients are present in the final end product and can replace the  mineral and vitamin premix. A number of reports in the literature have shown some degree of success in improving the clinical outcome of shrimp in viral and bacterial challenges by administering immunostimulants and algal extracts.*

When supplemented to the diet, fucoidan – a seaweed component -partially protected shrimp from White Spot Syndrom Virus (WSSV) infection **. Oceanfeed™- shrimp contains a plethora of natural bioactive compounds which, when incorporated into the diet, can modulate several functions and assist in the control of chronic diseases and viral infections in farmed shrimp. It also allows for diseasefree farmed shrimp to be reared in a more natural and sustainable way, thus easing concerns about environmental impact and sustainability.

Trial Results

OHT recently finalised trials using Penaeus monodon with the objective of researching the effects of Oceanfeed™-shrimp on growth, FCR, and viral and bacterial diseases. Tests were also done to assess the improvement of the clinical outcome of

 shrimp challenged with WSSV and Vibrio after feeding on a diet supplemented with Oceanfeed™-Shrimp. Growth tests were performed by CreveTec- AFT Research Center in biofloc recirculation systems. Challenge tests were performed by the Shrimp Research Group of the University of Ghent in Belgium.

Four different diets (with identical protein and lipid levels) were tested, incorporating 5 and 10% inclusions of Oceanfeed™- Shrimp and two diets with yeast included. Results after the two-month trials showed that inclusion of 10% of Oceanfeed™-shrimp (OF10-shrimp) without the addition of yeast was the best diet of the four tested diets and was able to replace the mineral vitamin premix. Moreover, shrimp fed with 10% inclusion of OF-shrimp were 2.8% heavier than reference shrimp fed with the standard reference diet at the end of the trial. This would translate into a 2.8 tonne increased yield per 100 tonnes of shrimp. The Feed Conversion Ratio (corrected for mortalities) was 0.08 better with 10% inclusion of OF-shrimp. This is 8 tonnes of feed per 100 tonnes of shrimp that would be saved. Mortalities also improved on the OF10 feed by 1.67%. This is 1.67 tonnes shrimp per 100 tonnes. There was a strong effect in the OF10 diet when challenged with Whitespot Viral Disease and the bacterial disease Vibrio with a 40% and 20% lower mortality respectively compared to the control diet.

At the end of the trial, non-challenged shrimp were tasted by a large UK seafood retailer. The trials showed that OF10 shrimp were significantly better in taste and texture than reference diet shrimp.

Global Issues

In 1810 the world population was approximately 1 billion; today, the figure is upwards of 7 billion, and by 2050 it is expected to top 9 billion. Food is therefore going to be incredibly important!

Currently food production is primarily land-based, despite the fact that 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by oceans. That leaves roughly 26% of the earth to support human life, animal life, vegetative life and agricultural production. It is estimated that less than 3% of the earth’s surface is being utilised as arable land. The green revolution has made 3% of the planet incredibly productive. But can it grow? Even more importantly, is it sustainable? The platform (food production) may not be burning, yet, but it is getting quite crowded. What if 10% of the ocean could be used to grow seafood? Shrimp farming will no doubt form a large part of this seafood production.

We are at the cross roads of a blue revolution, and Ocean Harvest Technology has developed feed ingredients from macroalgae to help develop this in a more sustainable way and to lessen the need and dependency on chemicals and additives. A perfect example is the effects of Oceanfeed™-shrimp in shrimp farming.

*(Itami et al., 1998; Takahashi et al., 2000; Chang et al., 2003)

** (Chotigeat et al., 2004)

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Seaweed Extracts: Benefits and Functions

Over the last decade a lot of hype has prevailed about seaweed extracts, resulting in the epiphany of a certain face cream retailing at US$250 for a mere few ounces. Unfortunately the economic climate has now changed, and products have to earn their mark or have at least some proper scientific evidence behind them. Nevertheless, seaweed extracts have been used in Ireland for a long time; popular folklore and anecdotal information tells us that these extracts are beneficial for all kinds of ailments.

Multi-Functional

Image of Carrageen Moss, otherwise known as Irish Moss

Carrageen (Irish Moss)

Most famous of all is Chondrus crispus or Irish moss, also known as carrageen. Carrageen is popular as a cold remedy and is used as a thickener for desserts, soups and sauces and used as extract for skin treatment. It is only in the last couple of years that the function of this cold remedy has been understood; the carrageenans are able to reduce the rhinovirus growth and inhibit the effects and replication of the virus. The human rhinovirus family is the cause of about half the cases of common cold.

Other examples are kelp extracts such as Laminaria digitata which are applied to lessen the effects of arthritis and rheumatism. In this case it is the high concentrations of iodine that are taken up through the skin and work as an anti-inflammatory. Studies at University College Dublin have demonstrated that iodine is also taken up by the body in seaweed baths. The most-used application of seaweed extracts however is most definitely in agriculture and hydroponics. For centuries farmers have been using seaweed to fertilize the soil; it was a logical step to start making extract from the seaweeds for their beneficial properties in a concentrated form.

The many growth hormones (e.g. gibberlins, auxins); osmoregulators (betaines) minerals, soil improvers etc found in these extracts provide a range of beneficial actions, such as a resistance to freezing and drought in plants, stress nematodes, worms and fungi.

Cosmetic Component

Over the last two decades, the use of seaweed extracts in cosmetics has taken flight, with the French leading the way, although nowadays seaweed-containing cosmetics exist everywhere and products are known from Japan to Ireland.

Several seaweed species are commonly used in the preparation of body-care products: the red algae Chondrus crispus (anti-gingivitis and anti-scarring activity); and Palmaria palmata (antiperspirant activity); species of the brown alga Laminaria (rich in iodine which boosts metabolism); the coralline algae Lithothamnion (rich in calcium carbonates and trace elements); species of the brown algae Fucus (heparin-like activity and antiseborrhoeic effect on greasy hair) and Ascophyllum nodosum (slimming action, shampoos and shower gels.

That seaweed and seaweed extracts are good for the skin is beyond dispute, according to cosmeticians and beauticians. Mainly based on anecdotal information, one can only assume that alginates, carrageenans and agars, found in large quantities in many seaweeds have a beneficial effect in combination with warm seawater; however, it is probable that there are other constituents of seaweeds that have restorative powers.

Research in the last 10 years sheds light on this, and good scientific evidence has been appearing over the years. The Japanese scientist Fujimora discovered that extracts from Fucus (bladder wrack) promotes the contraction of fibroblast-populated collagen gels through increased expression of integrin molecules.

A gel formulation that included 1% of the extract was applied topically to human cheek skin twice daily for five weeks. A significant decrease in skin thickness measured by B-mode ultrasound resulted. There was also a noticeable improvement in skin elasticity. In cheek skin, the thickness normally increases and the elasticity usually decreases with age. These results suggest that the Fucus vesiculosus extract possesses anti-aging activities and should be useful for a variety of cosmetics.

It was demonstrated that these effects were caused by the fucoidan fraction of the extract. Using tissue sections of human skin in ex vivo experiments the French researcher, Karim Senni demonstrated that fucoidan could minimize human leukocyte elastase (serine proteinase) activity resulting in the protection of human skin elastic fibre network against the enzymatic proteolysis. Others have demonstrated anti-UV properties and antioxidant activity when applied to the skin.

In short, there is merit in using these extracts in cosmetics although it depends on the species used, concentrations applied and scientific evidence obtained.

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Ocean Harvest Technology has already begun using tailor-made organically-produced seaweed products to make a variety of extracts for the aquaculture and other industries. With several seaweed experts on the staff and our in-house knowledge of the variety of species in Ireland and their bioactive molecules, Ocean Harvest Technology is ideally positioned to produce these extracts for use in a variety of applications.

For more information on our seaweed powders and extracts go to http://www.oceanharvest.ie

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Seaweeds: the answer for the future of global aquaculture feed?

Seaweeds: the answer for the future of global aquaculture feed?

The ever-growing global aquaculture industry currently produces about 50% of all seafood consumed of which 6% represents marine fish farming. Coupled to a steadily rising world population just reaching over 7 billion this year going to 9 billion in 2050 we are heading for some huge problems in respect of feed production in order to sustain and indeed increase aquaculture production. Image of Seaweed on a White backgroundFish meal, a commodity becoming more and more in short supply is becoming rather expensive as a protein source to feed farmed fish and an urgent need for alternative resources other than plant protein sources derived from food crops is needed. Seaweeds with protein values ranging from 10% for certain brown and green algae up to 40% in certain types of red algae might very well be a part of the answer.

With rapidly increasing interest for micro and macroalgae (seaweeds) as a novel feedstock for biofuels and novel platform chemicals for other industries such as the plastic Industry there might be a by-product that is of great interest for the fed aquaculture industry, i.e., protein. This by-product alone would justify the development of a vibrant algae cultivation industry. Besides, algae can contribute other interesting bioactive molecules to the table that could be applied in fed aquaculture to replace certain chemical ingredients such as colorants, preservatives and pre-mixes. One Irish company, Ocean Harvest Technology, based in Milltown has already advanced this concept and trialled different seaweed formula’s on salmon with considerable success resulting in lower FCR’s, higher weight gain and a strong reduction in sea lice.  The final end product (fresh and smoked salmon) has been exhaustively taste -tested by independent panels, retailers, consumers and Michelin Chefs and  received high acceptance for taste and texture, while reducing the environmental impact and increasing the sustainability of the fish. These seaweed fed salmon are currently produced in Canada. With these results in hand the Ocean Harvest Technology team recently finished shrimp trials with similar results and success and also have begun pig trials with an Irish pig research farm. In comparison the salmon feed industry globally produced close in the region of 2.8 million tonnes of feed, the global pig feed industry produces around 128 million tonnes of feed.

However, the focus has shifted and is more and more fixed on alternative protein resources. The Irish company Oceanfuel Ltd has developed a protein extraction process in order to concentrate the carbohydrates. The process is scalable and protein forms basically a by-product in order to produce a carbohydrate slurry for the biofuels industry. Analysis of the amino acid profiles of the protein fraction shows very comparable or better profiles compared to fish meal, with the advantage that seaweed protein is about 90% of the extracted product while fishmeal contains about 60-70% protein. By using seaweeds and seaweed proteins it will help reduce the pressure and reliance on wild fish stock and some other traditional ingredients and will soon play an important role in the feed and food production.

In contrast to microalgae seaweed have been cultivated in large quantities for hundreds of years, mainly in Asia and other tropical areas. This has been done largely for food production although over the last 60 years also to develop the phycolloid industry to produce alginates, carrageenans and agars which are widely used in the food industries as thickeners, binders and stabilizers. According to the latest figures of the FAO about 15.5 million tonnes of seaweeds were cultivated globally (worth about $US 6.5 billion) of which 98% takes place in Asia. Around 10% of the total cultivation is used for the phycolloid industry. Therefore the concept of cultivating seaweeds is not new, but to apply the concept to the western world will be difficult as there is little knowledge and understanding of seaweeds. In contrast, in Japan it is part of the staple diet, with an average of 7-10 grams consumed per day.

Nevertheless with the increasing interest in biofuels and statements by Governments to reduce CO2 levels to 1990 levels while promising that 20% of all EU transport fuels have to come from sustainable biofuels by 2020 will further increase the interest of growing seaweeds for a wide variety of purposes. As labour is horrendously expensive in this part of the world it means that the whole process from seed to harvesting has to be mechanised as much as possible. This will be the ultimate challenge for the next 10 years if we want to make seaweeds an accepted mainstream product being it for fuel, food or other ingredients.

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Seaweed- Ireland and Abroad

Seaweeds have been used in Ireland for decades for a variety of purposes; however the seaweed industry is still the Cinderella of the aquaculture and seafood Industry. Why is that?

Image of Laminaria hyperborean growing in the intertidal in Ireland

Laminaria hyperborean growing in the intertidal in Ireland

There are diverse market application for seaweeds ranging from food, functional foods and health supplements to agricultural applications, cosmetics, biotechnology and aquaculture. Besides we have over 600 different species of seaweed identified from Irish waters.

Unfortunately seaweeds have never been taken seriously in Ireland compared to fish, mussels, scallops and Oyster and ample funding has gone into developing this resource. The recession of late has made things worse with BIM completely abandoning its seaweed program. Again it is the lack of vision or no vision at all! Countries such as Norway are setting up large scale programmes to develop their seaweed resources and seaweed aquaculture for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. This is to improve the environmental record of fish farming and progress biofuel development while Norway is a country that has large oil resources.

If we look at seaweed at a global scale it is a different story. Worldwide seaweed aquaculture is a growing sector. Latest figures show a production of over 15 million tonnes wet weight with an economic value of US$ 6.5 billion. The majority of seaweed produced by aquaculture is used for human consumption and for extraction of hydrocolloids although the application for biofuels and other valuable ingredients is starting to play an important role. Moreover, new applications of algae and specific algal compounds in different sectors, such as functional foods, cosmetics, biomedicine and biotechnology are developed. Recent trends in life style towards natural, healthy products are favourable for advancement of seaweed consumption, applications and aquaculture.

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Ocean Harvest Technology Produce

Luckily the private sector in Ireland including Ocean Harvest Technology is rapidly developing the seaweed resources initiating new ideas and implementing their own R&D programs. It is through these initiatives that the future outlook looks good for our forgotten green gold on our shores. Especially the emerging markets such as functional foods and biofuel development from seaweeds will further enhance the sector. Bioethanol is currently produced from land-based crops such as corn and sugar cane, and the continued use of these crops will drive the food versus fuel debate more as demand for ethanol increases. Aquaculture of seaweeds is sustainable, use less or no agricultural inputs (pesticides, fertiliser, land, water), and not be part of the human or animal food chain. Cultivated seaweeds could be used as an alternative biomass source for bioethanol production and production of other high value added chemicals. Seaweed biomass represents an abundant and carbon neutral renewable resource with potential to reduce green-house gas emissions and the man-made impact on climate change. Coupled to fish farming it could even help alleviate environmental issues and recycle nitrates and phosphates.

The recently proposed deep water fish farm at the back of the Aran Islands producing 15,000 tonnes on top of the 13,000 currently produced nationally should incorporate aquaculture of seaweeds. This would allow for improving the environmental record, sustainability and carbon credits of the operation and could form part of the fish feed used for the fish creating the ultimate recycling of nutrients. Now that would be a long term vision!

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Salmon Feed Breakthrough for Ocean Harvest Technology

Salmon Feed Breakthrough for Ocean Harvest Technology

Ocean Harvest Technology, based in Galway on the Atlantic coast of Ireland is about to start commercial production of a new salmon feed ingredient that could revolutionise the €6 Billion global salmon farming industry.

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The industry has been beset by concerns over environmental impact, animal welfare and food safety concerns but all of those issues will be addressed by OceanFeed™, a wholly sustainable, seaweed-based salmon feed ingredient that not only replaces all synthetic chemical additives and colorants currently used in salmon fish feed – but also has been shown to significantly improve the health environment in which the fish are reared.

OceanFeed™ is a macro algae-based ingredient which is 100 per cent natural and wholly sustainable within the ocean environment.

Recently completed European sea trials with EWOS in Scotland have shown that the thousands of fish used in the trial have been healthier and displayed better weight gain, taste and appearance results when compared to fish fed on the current market leading feed.

Astaxanthin levels in fish fed on the OceanFeed diet were only 20 per cent of those in the control diet fed fish while OceanFeed™contained higher levels of natural pigments, notably Lutein, and of Omega 3 PUFA’s.

The feed ingredients are designed to reduce stress, enhance the immune system and minimize autoimmune problems, At the same time, the fish eating OceanFeed™ have significantly improved flesh quality and flavour — the ‘taste of the sea’ compared to a control test group.

The feed reduces many of the environmental issues associated with current aquaculture practices. Many of these have related to the use of synthetic, petroleum-based additives that represent about 20 per cent of the cost and 15 per cent of the weight of farmed salmon fish feed.

The market for additives used in the manufacture of salmon feed was worth more than US$615 million in 2007.

OceanFeed™ is the first commercial product to emerge from several years’ worth of research and development into the application of macro-algae and seaweed based products conducted by the team at Ocean Harvest Technology.

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